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This resource aims to provide comprehensive lists of materials on topics relating to Intensive Interaction and is a collaboration between the Intensive Interaction Institute and Leeds and York Partnership NHS Foundation Trust



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How to obtain books

You can find out more about the books below by clicking on the book cover image or title.

If you wish to purchase a copy take a note of the ISBN as well as title author details to supply to your bookshop or agent.

If you work for the NHS your local NHS library should be able to supply you with a loan copy of these titles either from their stock or using the document supply service.  If you are unsure of your local NHS Library check using the Health Library and Information Services Directory .

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Book Chapters

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Intensive interaction books and chapters

Caldwell, P & Horwood, J 2007, From isolation to intimacy: Making friends without wordsJessica Kingsley Publishers, London.

Johnson, J & Van Rensselae, A (ed) 2008, Families of adults with autism: Stories and advice for thenext generation, Jessica Kingsley Publishers, London.

Nind, M 2009, 'Promoting the emotional well-being of people with profound and multiple intellectual disabilities: A holistic approach through intensive interaction' in 

Profound Intellectual and Multiple Disabilities: Nursing Complex Needs, edited by Jillian Pawlyn, Steven Carnaby, Chichester, John Wiley, pp. 62 - 77.

Samuel, J 2009,  'Intensive interaction for people with profound and complexlearning disabilities' in ClinicalPsychology in Practice, edited by Helen Beinart, Paul Kennedy,Susan Llewelyn, Blackwell Publishing Ltd, Chichester, p .175

Zeedyk, S (ed) 2008, Promoting Social Interaction for Individuals with Communicative Impairments,Jessica Kingsley Publishers, London.


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How to obtain journal papers

To view further details about each paper (eg: abstract) click on the title.

If you work for the NHS your local NHS library you may be able to access some of these papers with your NHS OpenAthens account.  Log-in to the Journals A-Z and type the title of the journal to view availability.
If not available via NHS OpenAthens your NHS library should be able to obtain a copy of any of these papers for you  using the document supply service.  If you are unsure of your local NHS Library check using the Health Library and Information Services Directory .

Intensive Interaction Journal Papers

Anderson, C. (2006) ‘Early Communication strategies: using video analysis to support teachers working with preverbal pupils, British Journal of Special Education, 33(3), 114-120.

Argyropoulou, Z. & Papoudi, D. (2012) ‘The training of a child with autism in a Greek preschool inclusive class through intensive interaction: a case study’, European Journal of Special Needs Education, 27 (1), 99-114.

Barber, M. (2011) 'Conversations without words', LearningDisability Today, 11 (2), p. 26-30

Barber, M. (2008) ‘Using Intensive Interaction to add to the palette of interactive possibilities in teacher-pupil communication’, European Journal of Special Needs Education, 23 (4), 393-402.          

Berry, R., Firth, G., Leeming, C. & Sharma, V. (2013) ‘Clinical Psychologists’ Views of Intensive Interaction as an Intervention in Learning Disability Services’, Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy, 21 (5), 403-410.

Caldwell,P. (2013) 'Intensive interaction: Using body language to communicate', Journalon Developmental Disabilities, 19 (1), p. 33-39

Caldwell, P. (2006) ‘Speaking the other’s language: imitation as a gateway to relationship’, Infant and Child development, 15, 275 – 282.


Calveley,Julie. (2017) 'Gaining the power of initiation through intensiveinteraction', Learning Disability Practice, 20 (1), 19-23. 

Culham, A. (2004) ‘Getting in Touch with our Feminine Sides? Men's Difficulties and Concerns with Doing Intensive Interaction’, British Journal of Special Education, 31 (2), 81- 88.


Donnelly, C., Elsworth, J.& McKim, J. (2015) ‘An audit of an Intensive Interaction service’, TizardLearning Disability Review, 20/3, 111-116

Elgie, S. & Maguire, N.  (2001) ‘Intensive Interaction with a woman with multiple and profound disabilities: a case study’, Tizard Learning Disability Review, (6) 3, 18-24.

Ellis, M. & Astell, A. (2010) 'Communicationand personhood in advanced dementia', HealthcareCounselling & Psychotherapy Journal, 10 (3) p.32-35

Firth, G. (2006) ‘Intensive Interaction: a Research Review’Mental Health & Learning Disabilities Research and Practice, 3 (1), 53-58.

Firth, G., Elford, H., Leeming, C., & Crabbe, M. (2008) ‘Intensive Interaction as a Novel Approach in Social Care: Care Staff’s Views on the Practice Change Process’, Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disabilities, 21, 58-69.

Firth, G. (2008) 'A Dual Aspect Process Model of Intensive Interaction', British Journal of Learning Disabilities, 37(1), 43-49.

Firth, G., Poyser, C. & Guthrie, N. (2013) ‘Training care staff in Intensive Interactions’, Learning Disability Practice, 16 (10), 14-19.

Forster, S. & Taylor, M. (2006) ‘Using Intensive Interaction - A case study’, Acquiring Knowledge in Speech, Language & Hearing, 8 (1), 12-15.

Fraser, C. (2011) ‘Can adults on the autism spectrum be affected positively by the use of intensive interaction in supported living services?’, Good Autism Practice, 12 (2), 37-42.

Jones, K. & Howley, M. (2010) An investigation into an interaction programme for children on the autism spectrum: outcomes for children, perceptions of schools and a model for training’, Journal of Research in Special Educational Needs, 10 (2), 115-123.

Harris, C. & Wolverson, E. (2014) ‘Intensive Interaction: to build fulfilling relationships’, The Journal of Dementia Care, 22 (6), p.27-30.

Hutchinson, N. & Bodicoat, A. (2015) ‘The Effectiveness of Intensive Interaction: A Systematic Literature Review’, Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disabilities, (online Jan 2015).

Jefferies,Luke. (2009) 'Intensive interaction as a psychological therapy', ThePsychologist, 22 (9), p. 758-759

Jones, R. & Williams, H. (1998) ‘Reducing Stereotyped Behaviour: an experimental analysis of Intensive Interaction’, International Journal of Practical Approaches to Disability, 22 (2/3), 21-25.

Kellett, M. (2003) ‘Jacob’s Journey: developing sociability and communication in a young boy with severe and complex learning difficulties using the Intensive interaction teaching approach’, Journal of Research in Special Educational Needs, March.

Kellett M. (2004) ‘Intensive Interaction in the inclusive classroom: using interactive pedagogy to connect with students who are hardest to reach’, International Journal of Research & Method in Education, 27 (2), 175–88.

Kellett, M. (2005) ‘Catherine’s Legacy: social communication development for individuals with profound learning difficulties and fragile life expectancies’, British Journal of Special Education, 32 (3), 116-121.

Kennedy, A. (2001) ‘Intensive Interaction’, Learning Disability Practice, 4 (3), 14-15.

Kimhi,Y. & Zeedyk, M. (2010) Reviewof Promoting social interaction for individuals with communicative impairments:Making contactJournalof Autism and Developmental Disorders, 40 (3), 394-395 

Leaning, B. and Watson T. (2006) ‘From the inside looking out – an Intensive Interaction group for people with profound and multiple learning disabilities’, British Journal of Learning Disabilities, 34, 103-109.

Lovell, D.M., Jones, R.S.P. and Ephraim, G. (1998) ‘The effect of Intensive Interaction on the sociability of a man with severe intellectual disabilities’, International Journal of Practical Approaches to Disability, 22 (2/3), 3-9.

McNally, Steve. (2008) 'Research round-up: Evaluating intensive interaction', Learning DisabilityPractice, 11(9), 25-25

Nind, M. (2003) ‘Enhancing the communication learning environment of an early years unit through action research’, Educational Action Research, 11 (3), 347-63.

Nind, M. (1996) ‘Efficacy of Intensive Interaction: developing sociability and communication in people with severe and complex learning difficulties using an approach based on caregiver-infant interaction’, European Journal of Special Needs Education, 11 (1), 48-66.

Nind, M. (2000) ‘Teachers’ understanding of interactive approaches in special education’, International Journal of Disability, Development and Education, 47 (2), 184-199.

Nind, M. & Cochrane, S. (2002) ‘Inclusive curricula? Pupils on the margins of special schools’, International Journal of Inclusive Education, 6 (2), 185-198.

Nind, M. & Hewett, D. (1988) 'Interaction as Curriculum', British Journal of Special Education, 15 (2), 55-57.

Nind, M. & Kellett, M. (2002) ‘Responding to learners with severe learning difficulties and stereotyped behaviour: challenges for an inclusive era’, European Journal of Special Needs Education, 17 (3), 265-82 & 299-300.

Nind, M., Kellett, M. & Hopkins, V. (2001) ‘Teachers’ talk styles: communication with learners with severe learning difficulties’, Child Language, Teaching and Therapy, 17(2), 143-159.

Nind, M. & Powell, S. (2000) ‘Intensive Interaction and autism: some theoretical concerns’, Children and Society, 14 (2), 98-109.

Nind, M. & Thomas, G. (2005) ’Reinstating the value of teachers' tacit knowledge for the benefit of learners: Using 'Intensive Interaction', Journal of Research in Special Educational Needs, 5(3) 97-100.

Samuel, J. (2001) ‘Intensive Interaction in context’, Tizard Learning Disability Review, 6 (3), 25-30.

Samuel, J., Nind, M., Volans, A. & Scriven, I. (2008) ‘An evaluation of Intensive Interaction in community living settings for adults with profound intellectual disabilities’, Journal of Intellectual Disabilities, 12 (2), 111-126.

Sharma, V. & Firth, G. (2012)’ Effective engagement through Intensive Interaction’, Learning Disability Practice, 15 (9), 20-23.

Watson, J. & Knight, C. (1991) ‘An evaluation of intensive interaction teaching with pupils with severe learning difficulties’, Child language, Teaching and Therapy, 7 (3), 10-25. 

Watson, J. and Fisher A. (1997) ‘Evaluating the effectiveness of Intensive Interactive teaching with pupils with profound and complex learning difficulties’, British Journal of Special Education, 24  (2), 80-87. 

Williams, P. (2005) ‘Intensive interaction -- entering someone's inner world’, Community Living, 18 (4), 28-28.

Wolverson, M. (2005) 'Intensive Interaction', TherapyWeekly, 31(31), 11-14.


Zeedyk, S., Davies, C., Parry, S. & Caldwell, P. (2009) 'Fostering social engagement in Romanian children with communicative impairments: The experiences of newly trained practitioners of Intensive Interaction', British Journal of Learning Disabilities, 37 (3), 186-196. 

Zeedyk, S., Caldwell, P., & Davies, C. (2009) 'How rapidly does Intensive Interaction promote social engagement for adults with profound learning disabilities and communicative impairments?'  European Journal of Special Needs Education, 24(2), 119-137.




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Many schools including

St. Ann’s School now called Perseid; Oaklands School; Lakeside School; Clippen’s School; Chailey Heritage School; Pheonix School; Richard Cloudesley School; St. Pier’s School; Highbury School; Uffculme School; Brooksfield School;




Web-based resources


Intensive Interaction RSS Feed

Leeds Partnerships NHS Foundation Trust | Our Services | |

Intensive Interaction

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The Psychologist (The British Psychological Society)

As the official monthly publication of The British Psychological Society, The Psychologist serves as a forum for communication, discussion and debate on a range of psychological topics. We publish a wide range of scientific, professional and personal formats aimed at our large and diverse audience: The Psychologist is read by more than 50,000 Society members in print, and many non-members view our open access offerings online (both in the UK and abroad).”

British Institute of Learning Disabilities

Their service helps develop the organisations that provide services, and the people who give support to people with learning disabilities. That way they play a part in making sure people are support with dignity and respect and can make choices and decisions about their lives. They also campaign for proper funding for support for people with learning disabilities and their family carers, and against bad practice as witnessed at Winterbourne View.

Icommunicate Speech and Language Therapy

A website providing speech, language and communication therapy information, activities and products. Helps both children and adults who have learning disabilities, acquired brain injuries, autism, dyslexia, or deafness.       


We work in partnership with people with a learning disability, and all our services support people to live life as they choose. Our work includes: providing high-quality, flexible services that allow people to live as independently as possible in a place they choose; providing advice through our helplines and websites; campaigning for the changes that people with a learning disability want.


A charity supporting the National Autistic Society, run by two individuals with Autism.

Research Autism

Research Autism is the only UK charity exclusively dedicated to research into interventions in autism. We carry out high quality, independent research into new and existing health, education, social and other interventions. Our goal is the improvement of quality of life and outlook for the individuals affected and those around them.

Training materials for teachers of learners with severe, profound and complex learning difficulties.



Allsorts is run by members for members. We always listen to what our families tell us they want and try to give them the services they say they need. We try to offer a range of activities for the whole family, including parents, carers and siblings, as well as disabled children of different ages and abilities. Families tell us that one of the most useful things for them is to belong to a friendly and proactive network of people who know what it's like to have a child with additional needs.

National Elf Service

The Learning Disabilities Elf aims to bring you the latest learning disabilities evidence that is published each week. We scan the most important websites, databases and journals and select evidence that is relevant to health and social care professionals with an interest in learning disabilities. Our daily posts include summarised published evidence, policy guidance, reports and links to primary sources.

Good Beginnings Essex Early Years Autism Program

Good Beginnings is the multi-agency Essex programme to support preschool children who have social communication difficulties or autistic spectrum disorder, their families and practitioners who work with them.  Good Beginnings enables Essex parents and practitioners to receive advice and support from a range of specialist professionals working in partnership during the Early Years. (Essex County Council)


 We are a national charity that supports and campaigns for children and adults who are deafblind or have sensory impairments.

Autism As It Is

Empowering individuals and families living with autism. The website is run by Caroline Seyedi, who provides person-centred / family centred services such as: life coaching, hypnosis, mentoring, mindfulness and advocacy.

University of Hull

Lecturer - Peter Oakes is a clinical psychologist who has worked in a range of services for people with intellectual disabilities for more than 35 years. He is the programme director of the clinical psychology doctoral training course.

The Challenging Behaviour Foundation

The Challenging Behaviour Foundation (CBF) was founded in 1997 by Vivien Cooper OBE, the parent of a child with severe learning disabilities and behaviour described as challenging. We are the only charity for people with severe learning disabilities who display behaviour described as challenging. We are making a difference to the lives of children and adults across the UK by providing information and support, running workshops and speaking up for families on a national level. Describes a case study where intensive interaction was used.


Open Future Learning

Provide learning modules and videos to train those who wish to learn more about how to support individuals with learning disabilities.




A website providing resources about intellectual disabilities ideal for medical, nursing, and other healthcare students.